Prevalence and Effects
Research indicates that up to 50% of brain injury patients develop spasticity.
Spasticity results from a disorder of or injury to the central nervous system, such as a traumatic brain injury. The central nervous system—made up of the brain and spinal cord—works as a network of nerves connected to muscles. Complex messages continuously move back and forth between the muscles and the brain, using the spinal cord as a pathway. Normally, muscle groups in the nervous system work together so when one is flexed, its opposing muscle is relaxed. This helps maintain a comfortable level of muscle tone that provides support for the body and makes movement easy.
After a brain injury, the brain may not be able to send or receive these messages. As a result, the system is disturbed so that muscles needlessly stay tight or contracted. This condition is known as spasticity. Spasticity varies from mild to severe, and is different for every individual. Spasticity does not always need to be treated. It can be beneficial if an increase in muscle tone results in better movement and increased function; however, if spasticity interferes with comfort or function, it should be treated.
After brain injury, a joint may be limp at first and then become very tight, difficult to move, and painful. Untreated spasticity can lead to contractures, a permanent condition. Spasticity can cause an increase in joint flexion. Spasticity can interfere with a person’s ability to walk and perform self-care.
Treatment and Management
Medical treatment includes rehabilitation therapy, casting and/or splinting, prescription medication, injected medication, and intrathecal medication directly administered through an implanted pump. In extreme cases, surgery is necessary. It is particularly important to identify a medical professional who has a clear understanding of the special needs and unique characteristics of individuals with brain injury when treating spasticity.
- Injected Botulinum Toxin A Medication Appears to Reduce Severe Abnormal Excessive Muscle Tone
- Tizanidine Medication Appears to Reduce Abnormal Excessive Muscle Tone
- Outcome Assessment for Spasticity Management in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury
- Spasticity and Brain Injury Fact Sheet
- Spasticity In Brain Injury Webinar
- Outcome Assessment for Spasticity Management
To learn more about brain injury and spasticity, visit BIAA’s website.